Bootstrap5 表单验证(Validation)

半兽人 发表于: 2020-07-30   最后更新时间: 2020-08-31  

Bootstrap5是如何验证的

下面是Bootstrap的表单验证工作原理:

  • HTML表单验证是通过CSS的两个伪类:invalid:valid应用的。它适用于<input><select><textarea>元素。

  • Bootstrap将:invalid:valid风格的范围限定为父.was-validated类,通常应用在<form>。否则,任何没有值的必填字段都会在页面加载时显示为无效。这样,你可以选择何时激活它们(通常是在尝试提交表单后)。

  • 要重置表单的外观(例如,在使用AJAX的动态表单提交的情况下),在提交后再次从<form>中删除.was-validated类。

  • 作为备份,.is-invalid.is-valid类可以用来代替服务器端验证的伪类。它们不需要.was-validated父类。

  • 由于CSS工作方式的限制,如果没有自定义JavaScript的帮助,我们不能(目前)将样式应用到DOM中表单控件之前的<label>

  • 所有现代浏览器都支持约束验证API,这是一系列用于验证表单控件的JavaScript方法。

  • 反馈信息可以使用浏览器默认值(每个浏览器都不一样,并且无法通过CSS进行样式设置),或者使用附加的HTML和CSS定制反馈样式。

  • 你可以用JavaScript中的setCustomValidity提供自定义的有效性信息。

考虑到这一点,请考虑以下关于我们的自定义表单验证样式、可选的服务器端类和浏览器默认值的演示。

自定义样式

For custom Bootstrap form validation messages, you’ll need to add the novalidate boolean attribute to your <form>. This disables the browser default feedback tooltips, but still provides access to the form validation APIs in JavaScript. Try to submit the form below; our JavaScript will intercept the submit button and relay feedback to you. When attempting to submit, you’ll see the :invalid and :valid styles applied to your form controls.

Custom feedback styles apply custom colors, borders, focus styles, and background icons to better communicate feedback. Background icons for <select>s are only available with .form-select, and not .form-control.

<form class="row g-3 needs-validation" novalidate>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationCustom01" class="form-label">First name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationCustom01" value="Mark" required>
    <div class="valid-feedback">
      Looks good!
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationCustom02" class="form-label">Last name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationCustom02" value="Otto" required>
    <div class="valid-feedback">
      Looks good!
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationCustomUsername" class="form-label">Username</label>
    <div class="input-group">
      <span class="input-group-text" id="inputGroupPrepend">@</span>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationCustomUsername" aria-describedby="inputGroupPrepend" required>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        Please choose a username.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-6">
    <label for="validationCustom03" class="form-label">City</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationCustom03" required>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please provide a valid city.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3">
    <label for="validationCustom04" class="form-label">State</label>
    <select class="form-select" id="validationCustom04" required>
      <option selected disabled value="">Choose...</option>
      <option>...</option>
    </select>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please select a valid state.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3">
    <label for="validationCustom05" class="form-label">Zip</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationCustom05" required>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please provide a valid zip.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <div class="form-check">
      <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="invalidCheck" required>
      <label class="form-check-label" for="invalidCheck">
        Agree to terms and conditions
      </label>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        You must agree before submitting.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Submit form</button>
  </div>
</form>
// Example starter JavaScript for disabling form submissions if there are invalid fields
(function () {
  'use strict'

  // Fetch all the forms we want to apply custom Bootstrap validation styles to
  var forms = document.querySelectorAll('.needs-validation')

  // Loop over them and prevent submission
  Array.prototype.slice.call(forms)
    .forEach(function (form) {
      form.addEventListener('submit', function (event) {
        if (!form.checkValidity()) {
          event.preventDefault()
          event.stopPropagation()
        }

        form.classList.add('was-validated')
      }, false)
    })
})()

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Browser defaults

Not interested in custom validation feedback messages or writing JavaScript to change form behaviors? All good, you can use the browser defaults. Try submitting the form below. Depending on your browser and OS, you’ll see a slightly different style of feedback.

While these feedback styles cannot be styled with CSS, you can still customize the feedback text through JavaScript.

<form class="row g-3">
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationDefault01" class="form-label">First name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationDefault01" value="Mark" required>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationDefault02" class="form-label">Last name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationDefault02" value="Otto" required>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationDefaultUsername" class="form-label">Username</label>
    <div class="input-group">
      <span class="input-group-text" id="inputGroupPrepend2">@</span>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationDefaultUsername"  aria-describedby="inputGroupPrepend2" required>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-6">
    <label for="validationDefault03" class="form-label">City</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationDefault03" required>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3">
    <label for="validationDefault04" class="form-label">State</label>
    <select class="form-select" id="validationDefault04" required>
      <option selected disabled value="">Choose...</option>
      <option>...</option>
    </select>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3">
    <label for="validationDefault05" class="form-label">Zip</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationDefault05" required>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <div class="form-check">
      <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="invalidCheck2" required>
      <label class="form-check-label" for="invalidCheck2">
        Agree to terms and conditions
      </label>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Submit form</button>
  </div>
</form>

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Server side

We recommend using client-side validation, but in case you require server-side validation, you can indicate invalid and valid form fields with .is-invalid and .is-valid. Note that .invalid-feedback is also supported with these classes.

<form class="row g-3">
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationServer01" class="form-label">First name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control is-valid" id="validationServer01" value="Mark" required>
    <div class="valid-feedback">
      Looks good!
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationServer02" class="form-label">Last name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control is-valid" id="validationServer02" value="Otto" required>
    <div class="valid-feedback">
      Looks good!
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4">
    <label for="validationServerUsername" class="form-label">Username</label>
    <div class="input-group">
      <span class="input-group-text" id="inputGroupPrepend3">@</span>
      <input type="text" class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationServerUsername" aria-describedby="inputGroupPrepend3" required>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        Please choose a username.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-6">
    <label for="validationServer03" class="form-label">City</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationServer03" required>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please provide a valid city.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3">
    <label for="validationServer04" class="form-label">State</label>
    <select class="form-select is-invalid" id="validationServer04" required>
      <option selected disabled value="">Choose...</option>
      <option>...</option>
    </select>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please select a valid state.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3">
    <label for="validationServer05" class="form-label">Zip</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationServer05" required>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please provide a valid zip.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <div class="form-check">
      <input class="form-check-input is-invalid" type="checkbox" value="" id="invalidCheck3" required>
      <label class="form-check-label" for="invalidCheck3">
        Agree to terms and conditions
      </label>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        You must agree before submitting.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Submit form</button>
  </div>
</form>

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Supported elements

Validation styles are available for the following form controls and components:

  • <input>s and <textarea>s with .form-control (including up to one .form-control in input groups)
  • <select>s with .form-select
  • .form-checks
  • .form-file
<form class="was-validated">
  <div class="mb-3">
    <label for="validationTextarea" class="form-label">Textarea</label>
    <textarea class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationTextarea" placeholder="Required example textarea" required></textarea>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">
      Please enter a message in the textarea.
    </div>
  </div>

  <div class="form-check mb-3">
    <input type="checkbox" class="form-check-input" id="validationFormCheck1" required>
    <label class="form-check-label" for="validationFormCheck1">Check this checkbox</label>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">Example invalid feedback text</div>
  </div>

  <div class="form-check">
    <input type="radio" class="form-check-input" id="validationFormCheck2" name="radio-stacked" required>
    <label class="form-check-label" for="validationFormCheck2">Toggle this radio</label>
  </div>
  <div class="form-check mb-3">
    <input type="radio" class="form-check-input" id="validationFormCheck3" name="radio-stacked" required>
    <label class="form-check-label" for="validationFormCheck3">Or toggle this other radio</label>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">More example invalid feedback text</div>
  </div>

  <div class="mb-3">
    <select class="form-select" required aria-label="select example">
      <option value="">Open this select menu</option>
      <option value="1">One</option>
      <option value="2">Two</option>
      <option value="3">Three</option>
    </select>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">Example invalid select feedback</div>
  </div>

  <div class="form-file mb-3">
    <input type="file" class="form-file-input" id="validationFormFile" required>
    <label class="form-file-label" for="validationFormFile">
      <span class="form-file-text">Choose file...</span>
      <span class="form-file-button">Browse</span>
    </label>
    <div class="invalid-feedback">Example invalid form file feedback</div>
  </div>

  <div class="mb-3">
    <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit" disabled>Submit form</button>
  </div>
</form>

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Tooltips

If your form layout allows it, you can swap the .{valid|invalid}-feedback classes for .{valid|invalid}-tooltip classes to display validation feedback in a styled tooltip. Be sure to have a parent with position: relative on it for tooltip positioning. In the example below, our column classes have this already, but your project may require an alternative setup.

<form class="row g-3 needs-validation" novalidate>
  <div class="col-md-4 position-relative">
    <label for="validationTooltip01" class="form-label">First name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip01" value="Mark" required>
    <div class="valid-tooltip">
      Looks good!
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4 position-relative">
    <label for="validationTooltip02" class="form-label">Last name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip02" value="Otto" required>
    <div class="valid-tooltip">
      Looks good!
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-4 position-relative">
    <label for="validationTooltipUsername" class="form-label">Username</label>
    <div class="input-group">
      <span class="input-group-text" id="validationTooltipUsernamePrepend">@</span>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltipUsername" aria-describedby="validationTooltipUsernamePrepend" required>
      <div class="invalid-tooltip">
        Please choose a unique and valid username.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-6 position-relative">
    <label for="validationTooltip03" class="form-label">City</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip03" required>
    <div class="invalid-tooltip">
      Please provide a valid city.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3 position-relative">
    <label for="validationTooltip04" class="form-label">State</label>
    <select class="form-select" id="validationTooltip04" required>
      <option selected disabled value="">Choose...</option>
      <option>...</option>
    </select>
    <div class="invalid-tooltip">
      Please select a valid state.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-md-3 position-relative">
    <label for="validationTooltip05" class="form-label">Zip</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip05" required>
    <div class="invalid-tooltip">
      Please provide a valid zip.
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="col-12">
    <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Submit form</button>
  </div>
</form>

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Customizing

Validation states can be customized via Sass with the $form-validation-states map. Located in our _variables.scss file, this Sass map is looped over to generate the default valid/invalid validation states. Included is a nested map for customizing each state’s color and icon. While no other states are supported by browsers, those using custom styles can easily add more complex form feedback.

Please note that we do not recommend customizing these values without also modifying the form-validation-state mixin.

This is the Sass map from _variables.scss. Override this and recompile your Sass to generate different states:

$form-validation-states: (
  "valid": (
    "color": $form-feedback-valid-color,
    "icon": $form-feedback-icon-valid
  ),
  "invalid": (
    "color": $form-feedback-invalid-color,
    "icon": $form-feedback-icon-invalid
  )
);

This is the loop from forms/_validation.scss.scss. Any modifications to the above Sass map will be reflected in your compiled CSS via this loop:

@each $state, $data in $form-validation-states {
  @include form-validation-state($state, map-get($data, color), map-get($data, icon));
}


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