Bootstrap5 下拉菜单(Dropdowns)

半兽人 发表于: 2020-07-04   最后更新时间: 2021-10-29 23:41:52  
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概念

下拉菜单是可切换的,用于显示链接列表等的上下文。它们通过包含的Bootstrap下拉菜单JavaScript插件实现了互动。并且通过点击而不是悬停来切换的,这是一个有意的设计决定。

下拉菜单基于第三方库Popper.js上,它提供动态定位和视口检测。确保在Bootstrap的JavaScript之前包含popper.min.js,或者使用bootstrap.bundle.min.js/bootstrap.bundle.js,其中包含了Popper.js

示例

单个按钮

任何一个.btn都可以通过一些标记的改变而变成一个下拉式切换。下面是如何将它们与<button>元素一起工作。

<div class="dropdown">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenuButton1" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Dropdown button
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuButton1">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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使用 <a>:

<div class="dropdown">
  <a class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" href="#" role="button" id="dropdownMenuLink" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Dropdown link
  </a>

  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuLink">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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最棒的是你也可以使用任何按钮来做到这一点:

<!-- Example single danger button -->
<div class="btn-group">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-danger dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Action
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
    <li><hr class="dropdown-divider"></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Separated link</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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拆分按钮(Split button)

同样地,创建分离式按钮的下拉菜单与单按钮下拉菜单的标记几乎相同,但增加了.dropdown-toggle-split,以便在下拉菜单周围有适当的间距。

我们使用这个额外的类来减少光标两边25%的水平padding,并去除普通按钮下拉时的margin-left。这些额外的变化使光标保持在分割按钮的中心位置,并在主按钮旁边提供一个尺寸更合适的点击区域。

<!-- Example split danger button -->
<div class="btn-group">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-danger">Action</button>
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-danger dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropdown</span>
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
    <li><hr class="dropdown-divider"></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Separated link</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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尺寸(Sizing)

按钮下拉可以与各种尺寸的按钮一起使用,包括默认和拆分下拉按钮。

<!-- Large button groups (default and split) -->
<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary btn-lg dropdown-toggle" type="button" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Large button
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    ...
  </ul>
</div>
<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary btn-lg" type="button">
    Large split button
  </button>
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-lg btn-secondary dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropdown</span>
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    ...
  </ul>
</div>

<!-- Small button groups (default and split) -->
<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary btn-sm dropdown-toggle" type="button" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Small button
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    ...
  </ul>
</div>
<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary btn-sm" type="button">
    Small split button
  </button>
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-sm btn-secondary dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropdown</span>
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    ...
  </ul>
</div>

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方向(Directions)

上拉菜单(Dropup)

通过将 .dropup 添加到父元素来触发元素上方的下拉菜单。

<!-- Default dropup button -->
<div class="btn-group dropup">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Dropup
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <!-- Dropdown menu links -->
  </ul>
</div>

<!-- Split dropup button -->
<div class="btn-group dropup">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary">
    Split dropup
  </button>
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropdown</span>
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <!-- Dropdown menu links -->
  </ul>
</div>

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右下角(Dropright)

通过向父元素添加.dropright 来触发元素右侧的下拉菜单。

<!-- Default dropend button -->
<div class="btn-group dropend">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Dropright
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <!-- Dropdown menu links -->
  </ul>
</div>

<!-- Split dropend button -->
<div class="btn-group dropend">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary">
    Split dropend
  </button>
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropright</span>
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <!-- Dropdown menu links -->
  </ul>
</div>

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左下角 Dropleft

通过将 .dropleft 添加到父元素来触发元素左侧的下拉菜单。

<!-- Default dropstart button -->
<div class="btn-group dropstart">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Dropstart
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu">
    <!-- Dropdown menu links -->
  </ul>
</div>

<!-- Split dropstart button -->
<div class="btn-group">
  <div class="btn-group dropstart" role="group">
    <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
      <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropstart</span>
    </button>
    <ul class="dropdown-menu">
      <!-- Dropdown menu links -->
    </ul>
  </div>
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary">
    Split dropstart
  </button>
</div>

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菜单选项(Menu items)

你可以使用<a><button>元素作为下拉项目。

<div class="dropdown">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenu2" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Dropdown
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenu2">
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Another action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Something else here</button></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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您还可以使用 .dropdown-item-text 创建非交互式下拉项。 随意使用自定义 CSS 或文本实用程序进一步设置样式。

<ul class="dropdown-menu">
  <li><span class="dropdown-item-text">Dropdown item text</span></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
</ul>

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活跃(Active)

.active添加到下拉菜单中的项目,使其成为活动的样式。为了向辅助技术传达活动状态,使用aria-current属性 -- 对当前页面使用页面值,或对一个集合中的当前项目使用true。

<ul class="dropdown-menu">
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Regular link</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item active" href="#" aria-current="true">Active link</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another link</a></li>
</ul>

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禁用(Disabled)

下拉菜单中的项目添加.disabled,设置为禁用样式

<ul class="dropdown-menu">
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Regular link</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled link</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another link</a></li>
</ul>

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菜单对齐(Menu alignment)

默认情况下,下拉菜单会自动从其父级的顶部和左侧 100% 定位。 您可以使用定向.drop* 类来更改它,但您也可以使用其他修饰符类来控制它们。

.dropdown-menu-end 添加到 .dropdown-menu 以右对齐下拉菜单。 在 RTL 中使用 Bootstrap 时,方向会被镜像,这意味着 .dropdown-menu-end 将出现在左侧。

注意了! 下拉菜单的定位要感谢Popper,除非它们包含在navbar中。

<div class="btn-group">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
    Right-aligned menu example
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu dropdown-menu-end">
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Another action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Something else here</button></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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响应式对齐

如果你想使用响应式对齐,通过添加data-bs-display="static"属性禁用动态定位,并使用响应式变化类。

要将下拉菜单与给定的断点或更大的断点进行向对齐,请添加.dropdown-menu{-sm|-md|-lg|-xl|-xxl}-end

<div class="btn-group">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" data-bs-display="static" aria-expanded="false">
    Left-aligned but right aligned when large screen
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu dropdown-menu-lg-end">
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Another action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Something else here</button></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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要使下拉菜单在给定的断点或更大的范围内向对齐,可添加.dropdown-menu-right.dropdown-menu{-sm|-md|-lg|-xl|-xxl}-left

<div class="btn-group">
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" data-bs-display="static" aria-expanded="false">
    Right-aligned but left aligned when large screen
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu dropdown-menu-end dropdown-menu-lg-start">
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Another action</button></li>
    <li><button class="dropdown-item" type="button">Something else here</button></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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注意,你不需要为导航栏中的下拉按钮添加data-bs-display="static"属性,因为Popper不在navbars中使用。

菜单内容(Menu content)

标题(Headers)

添加标题到下拉菜单中。

<ul class="dropdown-menu">
  <li><h6 class="dropdown-header">Dropdown header</h6></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
</ul>

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分隔线(Dividers)

用分隔线分隔相关的菜单项。

<ul class="dropdown-menu">
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
  <li><hr class="dropdown-divider"></li>
  <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Separated link</a></li>
</ul>

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文本(Text)

将自由格式的文本放置在带有文本的下拉菜单中,并使用间距。请注意,您可能需要额外的大小调整样式来限制菜单宽度。

<div class="dropdown-menu p-4 text-muted" style="max-width: 200px;">
  <p>
    Some example text that's free-flowing within the dropdown menu.
  </p>
  <p class="mb-0">
    And this is more example text.
  </p>
</div>

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表单(Forms)

将表单放在下拉菜单中,或将其放入下拉菜单,并使用margin或padding为其提供所需的负空间。

<div class="dropdown-menu">
  <form class="px-4 py-3">
    <div class="mb-3">
      <label for="exampleDropdownFormEmail1" class="form-label">Email address</label>
      <input type="email" class="form-control" id="exampleDropdownFormEmail1" placeholder="email@example.com">
    </div>
    <div class="mb-3">
      <label for="exampleDropdownFormPassword1" class="form-label">Password</label>
      <input type="password" class="form-control" id="exampleDropdownFormPassword1" placeholder="Password">
    </div>
    <div class="mb-3">
      <div class="form-check">
        <input type="checkbox" class="form-check-input" id="dropdownCheck">
        <label class="form-check-label" for="dropdownCheck">
          Remember me
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Sign in</button>
  </form>
  <div class="dropdown-divider"></div>
  <a class="dropdown-item" href="#">New around here? Sign up</a>
  <a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Forgot password?</a>
</div>

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<form class="dropdown-menu p-4">
  <div class="mb-3">
    <label for="exampleDropdownFormEmail2" class="form-label">Email address</label>
    <input type="email" class="form-control" id="exampleDropdownFormEmail2" placeholder="email@example.com">
  </div>
  <div class="mb-3">
    <label for="exampleDropdownFormPassword2" class="form-label">Password</label>
    <input type="password" class="form-control" id="exampleDropdownFormPassword2" placeholder="Password">
  </div>
  <div class="mb-3">
    <div class="form-check">
      <input type="checkbox" class="form-check-input" id="dropdownCheck2">
      <label class="form-check-label" for="dropdownCheck2">
        Remember me
      </label>
    </div>
  </div>
  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Sign in</button>
</form>

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下拉菜单选项(Dropdown options)

使用data-bs-offsetdata-bs-reference来改变下拉菜单的位置。

<div class="d-flex">
  <div class="dropdown me-1">
    <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" id="dropdownMenuOffset" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false" data-bs-offset="10,20">
      Offset
    </button>
    <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuOffset">
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
    </ul>
  </div>
  <div class="btn-group">
    <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary">Reference</button>
    <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle dropdown-toggle-split" id="dropdownMenuReference" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false" data-bs-reference="parent">
      <span class="visually-hidden">Toggle Dropdown</span>
    </button>
    <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuReference">
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
      <li><hr class="dropdown-divider"></li>
      <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Separated link</a></li>
    </ul>
  </div>
</div>

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自动关闭行为(Auto close behavior)

默认情况下,在下拉菜单内部或外部单击时关闭下拉菜单。 您可以使用 autoClose 选项来更改下拉列表的这种行为。

<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="defaultDropdown" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" data-bs-auto-close="true" aria-expanded="false">
    Default dropdown
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="defaultDropdown">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenuClickableOutside" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" data-bs-auto-close="inside" aria-expanded="false">
    Clickable outside
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuClickableOutside">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenuClickableInside" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" data-bs-auto-close="outside" aria-expanded="false">
    Clickable inside
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuClickableInside">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="btn-group">
  <button class="btn btn-secondary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenuClickable" data-bs-toggle="dropdown" data-bs-auto-close="false" aria-expanded="false">
    Manual close
  </button>
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenuClickable">
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
    <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Menu item</a></li>
  </ul>
</div>

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更新于 2021-10-29

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