Bootstrap5 导航条(Navbar)

半兽人 发表于: 2020-07-09   最后更新时间: 2020-08-04  

导航条(Navbar)

Bootstrap5提供了强大的响应式导航栏的文档和示例。包括对品牌(branding)导航等的支持,包括折叠插件的支持。

支持的内容

导航栏内置了对少数子组件的支持。 根据需要从以下选项中进行选择:

  • .navbar-brand 公司, 产品, 项目名称。
  • .navbar-nav 用于全高和轻量级导航(包括对下拉菜单的支持)。
  • .navbar-toggler 用于折叠插件和其他导航切换。
  • 任何表单控件和动作的弹性和间距实用程序。
  • .navbar-text 用于添加垂直居中的文本字符串。
  • .collapse.navbar-collapse 用于通过一个父断点来分组和隐藏导航条内容。

本章介绍响应式轻型导航栏中包含的所有子组件,该导航栏也会在lg(大)断点处自动折叠。

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarSupportedContent" aria-controls="navbarSupportedContent" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarSupportedContent">
      <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto mb-2 mb-lg-0">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Link</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item dropdown">
          <a class="nav-link dropdown-toggle" href="#" id="navbarDropdown" role="button" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
            Dropdown
          </a>
          <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="navbarDropdown">
            <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
            <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
            <li><hr class="dropdown-divider"></li>
            <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
          </ul>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled</a>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <form class="d-flex">
        <input class="form-control mr-2" type="search" placeholder="Search" aria-label="Search">
        <button class="btn btn-outline-success" type="submit">Search</button>
      </form>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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品牌(Brand)

The .navbar-brand can be applied to most elements, but an anchor works best as some elements might require utility classes or custom styles.

<!-- As a link -->
<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
  </div>
</nav>

<!-- As a heading -->
<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <span class="navbar-brand mb-0 h1">Navbar</span>
  </div>
</nav>

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Adding images to the .navbar-brand will likely always require custom styles or utilities to properly size. Here are some examples to demonstrate.

<!-- Just an image -->
<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">
        <img src="/index/image/orcHome.png" width="30" height="30" alt="" loading="lazy">
    </a>
  </div>
</nav>

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<!-- Image and text -->
<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">
      <img src="/index/image/orcHome.png" width="30" height="30" class="d-inline-block align-top" alt="" loading="lazy">
      Bootstrap
    </a>
  </div>
</nav>

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Nav

Navbar navigation links build on our .nav options with their own modifier class and require the use of toggler classes for proper responsive styling. Navigation in navbars will also grow to occupy as much horizontal space as possible to keep your navbar contents securely aligned.

Active states—with .active—to indicate the current page can be applied directly to .nav-links or their immediate parent .nav-items.

Please note that you should also add the aria-current attribute on the .nav-link itself.

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarNav" aria-controls="navbarNav" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarNav">
      <ul class="navbar-nav">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Features</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Pricing</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled</a>
        </li>
      </ul>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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And because we use classes for our navs, you can avoid the list-based approach entirely if you like.

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarNavAltMarkup" aria-controls="navbarNavAltMarkup" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarNavAltMarkup">
      <div class="navbar-nav">
        <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        <a class="nav-link" href="#">Features</a>
        <a class="nav-link" href="#">Pricing</a>
        <a class="nav-link disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled</a>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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You may also utilize dropdowns in your navbar nav. Dropdown menus require a wrapping element for positioning, so be sure to use separate and nested elements for .nav-item and .nav-link as shown below.

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarNavDropdown" aria-controls="navbarNavDropdown" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarNavDropdown">
      <ul class="navbar-nav">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Features</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Pricing</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item dropdown">
          <a class="nav-link dropdown-toggle" href="#" id="navbarDropdownMenuLink" role="button" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-expanded="false">
            Dropdown link
          </a>
          <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="navbarDropdownMenuLink">
            <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Action</a></li>
            <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Another action</a></li>
            <li><a class="dropdown-item" href="#">Something else here</a></li>
          </ul>
        </li>
      </ul>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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Forms

Place various form controls and components within a navbar:

<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <form class="d-flex">
      <input class="form-control mr-2" type="search" placeholder="Search" aria-label="Search">
      <button class="btn btn-outline-success" type="submit">Search</button>
    </form>
  </div>
</nav>

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Immediate children elements in .navbar use flex layout and will default to justify-content: space-between. Use additional flex utilities as needed to adjust this behavior.

<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand">Navbar</a>
    <form class="d-flex">
      <input class="form-control mr-2" type="search" placeholder="Search" aria-label="Search">
      <button class="btn btn-outline-success" type="submit">Search</button>
    </form>
  </div>
</nav>

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Input groups work, too. If your navbar is an entire form, or mostly form, you can use the <form> element as the container and save some HTML. Applies to the option above and below this copy.

<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <form class="container-fluid">
    <div class="input-group">
      <span class="input-group-text" id="basic-addon1">@</span>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Username" aria-label="Username" aria-describedby="basic-addon1">
    </div>
  </form>
</nav>

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Various buttons are supported as part of these navbar forms, too. This is also a great reminder that vertical alignment utilities can be used to align different sized elements.

<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <form class="container-fluid justify-content-start">
    <button class="btn btn-outline-success mr-2" type="button">Main button</button>
    <button class="btn btn-sm btn-outline-secondary" type="button">Smaller button</button>
  </form>
</nav>

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Text

Navbars may contain bits of text with the help of .navbar-text. This class adjusts vertical alignment and horizontal spacing for strings of text.

<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <span class="navbar-text">
      Navbar text with an inline element
    </span>
  </div>
</nav>

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Mix and match with other components and utilities as needed.

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar w/ text</a>
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarText" aria-controls="navbarText" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarText">
      <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto mb-2 mb-lg-0">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Features</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Pricing</a>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <span class="navbar-text">
        Navbar text with an inline element
      </span>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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Color schemes

Theming the navbar has never been easier thanks to the combination of theming classes and background-color utilities. Choose from .navbar-light for use with light background colors, or .navbar-dark for dark background colors. Then, customize with .bg-* utilities.

<nav class="navbar navbar-dark bg-dark">
  <!-- Navbar content -->
</nav>

<nav class="navbar navbar-dark bg-primary">
  <!-- Navbar content -->
</nav>

<nav class="navbar navbar-light" style="background-color: #e3f2fd;">
  <!-- Navbar content -->
</nav>

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Containers

Although it’s not required, you can wrap a navbar in a .container to center it on a page or add one within to only center the contents of a fixed or static top navbar. Note that an inner container is still required.

<div class="container">
  <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
    <div class="container-fluid">
      <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    </div>
  </nav>
</div>

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Use any of the responsive containers to change how wide the content in your navbar.

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-md">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
  </div>
</nav>

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Placement

Use our position utilities to place navbars in non-static positions. Choose from fixed to the top, fixed to the bottom, or stickied to the top (scrolls with the page until it reaches the top, then stays there). Fixed navbars use position: fixed, meaning they’re pulled from the normal flow of the DOM and may require custom CSS (e.g., padding-top on the <body>) to prevent overlap with other elements.

Also note that .sticky-top uses position: sticky, which isn’t fully supported in every browser.

<nav class="navbar navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Default</a>
  </div>
</nav>

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<nav class="navbar fixed-top navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Fixed top</a>
  </div>
</nav>

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<nav class="navbar fixed-bottom navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Fixed bottom</a>
  </div>
</nav>

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<nav class="navbar sticky-top navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Sticky top</a>
  </div>
</nav>

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Responsive behaviors

Navbars can utilize .navbar-toggler, .navbar-collapse, and .navbar-expand{-sm|-md|-lg|-xl|-xxl} classes to change when their content collapses behind a button. In combination with other utilities, you can easily choose when to show or hide particular elements.

For navbars that never collapse, add the .navbar-expand class on the navbar. For navbars that always collapse, don’t add any .navbar-expand class.

Toggler

Navbar togglers are left-aligned by default, but should they follow a sibling element like a .navbar-brand, they’ll automatically be aligned to the far right. Reversing your markup will reverse the placement of the toggler. Below are examples of different toggle styles.

With no .navbar-brand shown in lowest breakpoint:

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarTogglerDemo01" aria-controls="navbarTogglerDemo01" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarTogglerDemo01">
      <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Hidden brand</a>
      <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto mb-2 mb-lg-0">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Link</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled</a>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <form class="d-flex">
        <input class="form-control mr-2" type="search" placeholder="Search" aria-label="Search">
        <button class="btn btn-outline-success" type="submit">Search</button>
      </form>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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With a brand name shown on the left and toggler on the right:

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarTogglerDemo02" aria-controls="navbarTogglerDemo02" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarTogglerDemo02">
      <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto mb-2 mb-lg-0">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Link</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled</a>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <form class="d-flex">
        <input class="form-control mr-2" type="search" placeholder="Search" aria-label="Search">
        <button class="btn btn-outline-success" type="submit">Search</button>
      </form>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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With a toggler on the left and brand name on the right:

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarTogglerDemo03" aria-controls="navbarTogglerDemo03" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarTogglerDemo03">
      <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto mb-2 mb-lg-0">
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link active" aria-current="page" href="#">Home</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link" href="#">Link</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link disabled" href="#" tabindex="-1" aria-disabled="true">Disabled</a>
        </li>
      </ul>
      <form class="d-flex">
        <input class="form-control mr-2" type="search" placeholder="Search" aria-label="Search">
        <button class="btn btn-outline-success" type="submit">Search</button>
      </form>
    </div>
  </div>
</nav>

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External content

Sometimes you want to use the collapse plugin to trigger hidden content elsewhere on the page. Because our plugin works on the id and data-target matching, that’s easily done!

<div class="collapse" id="navbarToggleExternalContent">
  <div class="bg-dark p-4">
    <h5 class="text-white h4">Collapsed content</h5>
    <span class="text-muted">Toggleable via the navbar brand.</span>
  </div>
</div>
<nav class="navbar navbar-dark bg-dark">
  <div class="container-fluid">
    <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarToggleExternalContent" aria-controls="navbarToggleExternalContent" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
      <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
    </button>
  </div>
</nav>

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