Prometheus 告警配置

半兽人 发表于: 2019-07-24   最后更新时间: 2021-03-23 18:29:21  
{{totalSubscript}} 订阅, 2,596 游览

Alertmanager配置

Alertmanager通过命令行和一个配置文件配置。命令行配置不可变的系统参数,而配置文件定义inhibition规则,通知路由和通知接收者。

可视化编辑器可以帮助构建路由树。

如果想要查看所有命令,请使用命令alertmanager -h

动态加载

Alertmanager能够在运行时动态加载配置文件。如果新的配置有错误,则配置中的变化不会生效,同时错误日志被输出到终端。

  • 通过发送SIGHUP信号量给这个进程
  • 或者通过HTTP POST请求地址/-/reload来动态加载配置到内存。

几个主要部分

Alertmanager配置中一般会包含以下几个主要部分:

  • 全局配置(global):用于定义一些全局的公共参数,如全局的SMTP配置,Slack配置等内容;
  • 模板(templates):用于定义告警通知时的模板,如HTML模板,邮件模板等;
  • 告警路由(route):根据标签匹配,确定当前告警应该如何处理;
  • 接收人(receivers):接收人是一个抽象的概念,它可以是一个邮箱也可以是微信,Slack或者Webhook等,接收人一般配合告警路由使用;
  • 抑制规则(inhibit_rules):合理设置抑制规则可以减少垃圾告警的产生

配置文件

使用--config.file指定要加载的配置文件

./alertmanager --config.file=alertmanager.yml

这个配置文件使用yaml格式编写的,括号表示参数是可选的,对于非列表参数,该值将设置为指定的默认值。

  • <duration>: 与正则表达式匹配的持续时间[0-9]+(ms|[smhdwy])
  • <labeltime>: 与正则表达式匹配的字符串[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*
  • <labelvalue>: 一串unicode字符
  • <filepath>: 当前工作目录下的有效路径
  • <boolean>: 布尔值: false 或者 true
  • <string>: 常规字符串
  • <secret>: 包含密码的常规字符串,例如密码
  • <tmpl_string>: 一个在使用前被模板扩展的字符串
  • <tmpl_secret>: 模板扩展的字符串,一个密码。
  • <int>: 一个整数值

其他占位符被分开指定, 一个有效的示例,点击这里

全局配置参数在所有其他的上下文配置中都是有效的,也作为其他区域的默认值。

global:
  # The default SMTP From header field.
  [ smtp_from: <tmpl_string> ]
  # The default SMTP smarthost used for sending emails, including port number.
  # Port number usually is 25, or 587 for SMTP over TLS (sometimes referred to as STARTTLS).
  # Example: smtp.example.org:587
  [ smtp_smarthost: <string> ]
  # The default hostname to identify to the SMTP server.
  [ smtp_hello: <string> | default = "localhost" ]
  # SMTP Auth using CRAM-MD5, LOGIN and PLAIN. If empty, Alertmanager doesn't authenticate to the SMTP server.
  [ smtp_auth_username: <string> ]
  # SMTP Auth using LOGIN and PLAIN.
  [ smtp_auth_password: <secret> ]
  # SMTP Auth using PLAIN.
  [ smtp_auth_identity: <string> ]
  # SMTP Auth using CRAM-MD5.
  [ smtp_auth_secret: <secret> ]
  # The default SMTP TLS requirement.
  # Note that Go does not support unencrypted connections to remote SMTP endpoints.
  [ smtp_require_tls: <bool> | default = true ]

  # The API URL to use for Slack notifications.
  [ slack_api_url: <secret> ]
  [ victorops_api_key: <secret> ]
  [ victorops_api_url: <string> | default = "https://alert.victorops.com/integrations/generic/20131114/alert/" ]
  [ pagerduty_url: <string> | default = "https://events.pagerduty.com/v2/enqueue" ]
  [ opsgenie_api_key: <secret> ]
  [ opsgenie_api_url: <string> | default = "https://api.opsgenie.com/" ]
  [ wechat_api_url: <string> | default = "https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/" ]
  [ wechat_api_secret: <secret> ]
  [ wechat_api_corp_id: <string> ]

  # The default HTTP client configuration
  [ http_config: <http_config> ]

  # ResolveTimeout is the default value used by alertmanager if the alert does
  # not include EndsAt, after this time passes it can declare the alert as resolved if it has not been updated.
  # This has no impact on alerts from Prometheus, as they always include EndsAt.
  [ resolve_timeout: <duration> | default = 5m ]

# Files from which custom notification template definitions are read.
# The last component may use a wildcard matcher, e.g. 'templates/*.tmpl'.
templates:
  [ - <filepath> ... ]

# The root node of the routing tree.
route: <route>

# A list of notification receivers.
receivers:
  - <receiver> ...

# A list of inhibition rules.
inhibit_rules:
  [ - <inhibit_rule> ... ]

<route>

一个路由块在路由树和它的孩子中定义了一个节点。如果不设置,它的可选配置参数从父节点中继承其值。

每个告警在已配置路由树的顶部节点,这个节点必须匹配所有告警。然后遍历所有的子节点。如果continue设置成false, 当匹配到第一个孩子时,它会停止下来;如果continue设置成true, 则告警将继续匹配后续的兄弟姐妹节点。如果一个告警不匹配一个节点的任何孩子,这个告警将会基于当前节点的配置参数来处理告警。

[ receiver: <string> ]
# The labels by which incoming alerts are grouped together. For example,
# multiple alerts coming in for cluster=A and alertname=LatencyHigh would
# be batched into a single group.
#
# To aggregate by all possible labels use the special value '...' as the sole label name, for example:
# group_by: ['...']
# This effectively disables aggregation entirely, passing through all
# alerts as-is. This is unlikely to be what you want, unless you have
# a very low alert volume or your upstream notification system performs
# its own grouping.
[ group_by: '[' <labelname>, ... ']' ]

# Whether an alert should continue matching subsequent sibling nodes.
[ continue: <boolean> | default = false ]

# A set of equality matchers an alert has to fulfill to match the node.
match:
  [ <labelname>: <labelvalue>, ... ]

# A set of regex-matchers an alert has to fulfill to match the node.
match_re:
  [ <labelname>: <regex>, ... ]

# How long to initially wait to send a notification for a group
# of alerts. Allows to wait for an inhibiting alert to arrive or collect
# more initial alerts for the same group. (Usually ~0s to few minutes.)
[ group_wait: <duration> | default = 30s ]

# How long to wait before sending a notification about new alerts that
# are added to a group of alerts for which an initial notification has
# already been sent. (Usually ~5m or more.)
[ group_interval: <duration> | default = 5m ]

# How long to wait before sending a notification again if it has already
# been sent successfully for an alert. (Usually ~3h or more).
[ repeat_interval: <duration> | default = 4h ]

# Zero or more child routes.
routes:
  [ - <route> ... ]

示例

# 包含所有参数的根路由,如果子路由没有被覆盖,则子路由会继承这些参数。
route:
  receiver: 'default-receiver'
  group_wait: 30s
  group_interval: 5m
  repeat_interval: 4h
  group_by: [cluster, alertname]
  # 所有不符合以下子路由的告警都将保留在根节点,并被发送到"default-receiver"。
  routes:
  # 所有带有 service=mysql 或 service=cassandra 的告警都会被发送到database pager。
  - receiver: 'database-pager'
    group_wait: 10s
    match_re:
      service: mysql|cassandra
  # 所有带有 team=frontend 标签的告警都符合这个子路由。
  # 它们按product和environment进行分组
  # 而不是cluster和alertname进行分组。
  - receiver: 'frontend-pager'
    group_by: [product, environment]
    match:
      team: frontend

<inhibit_rule>

一个inhibition规则是在与另一组匹配器匹配的告警存在的条件下,使匹配一组匹配器的告警失效的规则。两个告警必须具有一组相同的标签。

# 必须满足告警中的匹配器才能静音。
target_match:
  [ <labelname>: <labelvalue>, ... ]
target_match_re:
  [ <labelname>: <regex>, ... ]

# 匹配器必须存在一个或多个警报,抑制才会生效。
source_match:
  [ <labelname>: <labelvalue>, ... ]
source_match_re:
  [ <labelname>: <regex>, ... ]

# 在source和target告警中必须有一个相等的值的标签,抑制才能生效。
[ equal: '[' <labelname>, ... ']' ]

<receiver>

接收者是一个或者多个通知集成的命名配置。

# The unique name of the receiver.
name: <string>

# Configurations for several notification integrations.
email_configs:
  [ - <email_config>, ... ]
hipchat_configs:
  [ - <hipchat_config>, ... ]
pagerduty_configs:
  [ - <pagerduty_config>, ... ]
pushover_configs:
  [ - <pushover_config>, ... ]
slack_configs:
  [ - <slack_config>, ... ]
opsgenie_configs:
  [ - <opsgenie_config>, ... ]
webhook_configs:
  [ - <webhook_config>, ... ]

<email_config>

# Whether or not to notify about resolved alerts.
[ send_resolved: <boolean> | default = false ]

# The email address to send notifications to.
to: <tmpl_string>
# The sender address.
[ from: <tmpl_string> | default = global.smtp_from ]
# The SMTP host through which emails are sent.
[ smarthost: <string> | default = global.smtp_smarthost ]
# SMTP authentication information.
[ auth_username: <string> ]
[ auth_password: <string> ]
[ auth_secret: <string> ]
[ auth_identity: <string> ]

[ require_tls: <bool> | default = global.smtp_require_tls ]

# The HTML body of the email notification.
[ html: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "email.default.html" . }}' ]

# Further headers email header key/value pairs. Overrides any headers
# previously set by the notification implementation.
[ headers: { <string>: <tmpl_string>, ... } ]

<hipchat_config>

# Whether or not to notify about resolved alerts.
[ send_resolved: <boolean> | default = false ]

# The HipChat Room ID.
room_id: <tmpl_string>
# The auth token.
[ auth_token: <string> | default = global.hipchat_auth_token ]
# The URL to send API requests to.
[ url: <string> | default = global.hipchat_url ]

# See https://www.hipchat.com/docs/apiv2/method/send_room_notification
# A label to be shown in addition to the sender's name.
[ from:  <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "hipchat.default.from" . }}' ]
# The message body.
[ message:  <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "hipchat.default.message" . }}' ]
# Whether this message should trigger a user notification.
[ notify:  <boolean> | default = false ]
# Determines how the message is treated by the alertmanager and rendered inside HipChat. Valid values are 'text' and 'html'.
[ message_format:  <string> | default = 'text' ]
# Background color for message.
[ color:  <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ if eq .Status "firing" }}red{{ else }}green{{ end }}' ]

<pagerduty_config>

通过PagerDuty ApI发送通知:

# Whether or not to notify about resolved alerts.
[ send_resolved: <boolean> | default = true ]

# The PagerDuty service key.
service_key: <tmpl_string>
# The URL to send API requests to
[ url: <string> | default = global.pagerduty_url ]

# The client identification of the Alertmanager.
[ client:  <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "pagerduty.default.client" . }}' ]
# A backlink to the sender of the notification.
[ client_url:  <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "pagerduty.default.clientURL" . }}' ]

# A description of the incident.
[ description: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "pagerduty.default.description" .}}' ]

# A set of arbitrary key/value pairs that provide further detail
# about the incident.
[ details: { <string>: <tmpl_string>, ... } | default = {
  firing:       '{{ template "pagerduty.default.instances" .Alerts.Firing }}'
  resolved:     '{{ template "pagerduty.default.instances" .Alerts.Resolved }}'
  num_firing:   '{{ .Alerts.Firing | len }}'
  num_resolved: '{{ .Alerts.Resolved | len }}'
} ]

<pushover_config>

通过PUSHover API发送通知:

# The recipient user’s user key.
user_key: <string>

# Your registered application’s API token, see https://pushover.net/apps
token: <string>

# Notification title.
[ title: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "pushover.default.title" . }}' ]

# Notification message.
[ message: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "pushover.default.message" . }}' ]

# A supplementary URL shown alongside the message.
[ url: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "pushover.default.url" . }}' ]

# Priority, see https://pushover.net/api#priority
[ priority: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ if eq .Status "firing" }}2{{ else }}0{{ end }}' ]

# How often the Pushover servers will send the same notification to the user.
# Must be at least 30 seconds.
[ retry: <duration> | default = 1m ]

# How long your notification will continue to be retried for, unless the user
# acknowledges the notification.
[ expire: <duration> | default = 1h ]

<slack_config>

通过Slack webhooks发送通知:

# Whether or not to notify about resolved alerts.
[ send_resolved: <boolean> | default = false ]

# The Slack webhook URL.
[ api_url: <string> | default = global.slack_api_url ]

# The channel or user to send notifications to.
channel: <tmpl_string>

# API request data as defined by the Slack webhook API.
[ color: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ if eq .Status "firing" }}danger{{ else }}good{{ end }}' ]
[ username: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "slack.default.username" . }}'
[ title: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "slack.default.title" . }}' ]
[ title_link: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "slack.default.titlelink" . }}' ]
[ icon_emoji: <tmpl_string> ]
[ icon_url: <tmpl_string> ]
[ pretext: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "slack.default.pretext" . }}' ]
[ text: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "slack.default.text" . }}' ]
[ fallback: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "slack.default.fallback" . }}' ]

<opsgenie_config>

通过OpsGenie API发送通知:

# Whether or not to notify about resolved alerts.
[ send_resolved: <boolean> | default = true ]

# The API key to use when talking to the OpsGenie API.
api_key: <string>

# The host to send OpsGenie API requests to.
[ api_host: <string> | default = global.opsgenie_api_host ]

# A description of the incident.
[ description: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "opsgenie.default.description" . }}' ]
# A backlink to the sender of the notification.
[ source: <tmpl_string> | default = '{{ template "opsgenie.default.source" . }}' ]

# A set of arbitrary key/value pairs that provide further detail
# about the incident.
[ details: { <string>: <tmpl_string>, ... } ]

# Comma separated list of team responsible for notifications.
[ teams: <tmpl_string> ]
# Comma separated list of tags attached to the notifications.
[ tags: <tmpl_string> ]

<webhook_config>

webhook接收者允许配置一个通用的接收者

# Whether or not to notify about resolved alerts.
[ send_resolved: <boolean> | default = true ]

# The endpoint to send HTTP POST requests to.
url: <string>

Alertmanager通过HTTP POST请求发送json格式的数据到配置端点:

{
  "version": "3",
  "groupKey": <number>     // key identifying the group of alerts (e.g. to deduplicate)
  "status": "<resolved|firing>",
  "receiver": <string>,
  "groupLabels": <object>,
  "commonLabels": <object>,
  "commonAnnotations": <object>,
  "externalURL": <string>,  // backling to the Alertmanager.
  "alerts": [
    {
      "labels": <object>,
      "annotations": <object>,
      "startsAt": "<rfc3339>",
      "endsAt": "<rfc3339>"
    },
    ...
  ]
}



查看Prometheus更多相关的文章或提一个关于Prometheus的问题,也可以与我们一起分享文章
提问